Translation has a strategic role in the (social, political, cultural) planning and organization of multilingual societies. In a context of expanding globalization, of encounters of diverse cultures and ethnicities, translation is inherently part of language ideological battles and research on translation policies forms an essential contribution to the understanding of language policies, of language ideologies and their link with 'nations', minorities, migration, globalisation etc. What language and translation policies for which linguistic minorities? What is the role and status accorded to institutional translation in various past and present multilingual societies? What is the link between various translation policies and different types of nationalism or multiculturalism? Reine Meylaerts presents in this T&P pill some answers with examples from American (e.g. 'English only') and European language and translation policies.